A perspective on philanthropic giving by wealthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa.
Philanthropy is an integral part of the African identity. Philanthropy, or giving, has long been practiced by Africans at individual and community levels, both formally and informally, and at multiple levels of scale.
Following the disputed results of the general election in 2007, Kenya plunged into violence. It had been a very closely contested election between Mwai Kibaki, the incumbent president, and Raila Odinga the leader of opposition. Their supporters were both emotive and impassioned about the entire process. Initially it was thought that the violence following the announcement of the election results was a spontaneous public reaction to what was seen as a flawed electoral process. The widespread and systematic nature of the violence however, hinted at a more deliberate and articulate plan to attack the civilian population.4 The violence led to the death of over a thousand persons, the rape and sexual violation of over nine hundred women and the displacement of over six hundred thousand people.5
In late 2007, Kenya held a closely contested presidential election whose outcome was challenged by the opposition. The disputed election results were followed by widespread violence that left 1,133 people dead, 663,921 displaced, hundreds of women and men sexually violated and property worth millions of shillings destroyed.1 When Kenya failed to establish a domestic tribunal to prosecute those suspected of serious atrocity crimes, as recommended by a Commission of Inquiry established by the international mediation process led by Kofi Annan, the International Criminal Court (ICC) intervened, opening cases against six high profile Kenyans in March 2010.
One and a half years since the International Crimes Division (ICD) in the High Court of Kenya was first proposed by the Judicial Service Commission (JSC) in its report of October 20121 , there has been little concrete movement towards actually setting up the Division. This is not in itself a criticism; such processes should take the time necessary to achieve the desired results. However, apart from publishing the report, making several ‘bench-marking’ visits to other countries and holding two low-key workshops, the JSC seems to have made little progress towards actualising an ICD. Despite this inertia, the Division continues to be touted in official circles as a potential answer to providing justice for victims of post-election violence as well as a potential replacement of the ICC ongoing process.
In September 2013, the Edmond de Rothschild Foundations hosted the first Global South philanthropy platform, Empowering Families for Innovative Philanthropy (ERFIP) in Megève, France. ERFIP is a distinctively unique platform, which brings together philanthropists and practitioners from emerging economies to share best practices, successful models and challenges for peer review and feedback.
ERFIP focused on identifying philanthropists and professionals whose work has significant impact in their respective communities but are
not seen enough on the conference circuits. The aim of this report is to give a sense of the driving force behind the giving and philanthropy in the three regions: Africa, Asia and the Arab region. It is hoped that such thorough understanding of the underlying factors for giving and philanthropy will help in collection of data that is relevant, meaningful to the sector and contributes to better representation of the South within Global Philanthropy.
Agriculture is the backbone of Uganda's economy and an important driver of economic development and poverty reduction. Approximately 73% of Ugandans depend on agriculture (MAAIF, 2009). However, the sector currently faces many multifaceted challenges which include land degradation, inadequate market access, unreliable weather and civil strife.
Stepping out of the hope of freedom and into the arms of the free market, many sub-Saharan African countries, including Tanzania, took on the liberalisation and privatisation packages of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in the early 1980s. Tanzania overhauled the post-independence policies of Ujamaa and replaced them with policies that were free-market friendly, so to speak
Agriculture is the most important sector of Malawi's economy in terms of its contribution to the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It accounts for 39% of GDP, contributes over 80% of foreign exchange earnings, employs about 80% of the workforce and contributes significantly to national and household food security (Malawi Government- Agriculture Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp), 2009)
Agriculture in Kenya remains a dominant sector in the economy accounting for 25% of GDP and 60% of export earnings. The sector also indirectly contributes another 27% to the GDP through linkages with manufacturing, distribution and service related sectors and accounts for 60% of total national employment. Out of the total labour force, women contribute 75% of the labour force (Republic of Kenya, 2004a). The majority of Kenya's population (80%) lives in rural areas and derives its livelihood from agriculture.
On October 2009, the Government of Ghana pledged to fulfil the commitments laid out in the Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP II) and Sector Plan agenda in a new Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) compact. Among other things, the compact affirmed Ghana's commitment to increasing public investment in agriculture to at least 10% of her national budget
Mali is divided into 8 regions, 1 District (capital city Bamako), 49 administrative units ("Cercles") and 703 municipalities. It has a Saharan climate in the North, Sahelian in the centre and Sudanese in the South. Annual rainfall varies from less than 200mm in the North to more than 1,100mm in the South.
Africa’s people share deep-rooted values of social solidarity, human dignity, and inter-personal connectedness. This corresponds to the Western notion of philanthropy – the desire to promote the wellbeing of others or, put simply, ‘to love people’.
But in the past, we have had philanthropy done to us as Africans with little recognition that there is a vast ﬁeld of philanthropic practice alive and active in Africa.
The importance of having a firm foundation in early learning cannot be over emphasized. It is at the early learning stage that the foundation is laid for future learning and development and early learning programs normally have a significant impact on future education outcomes. If children lack a firm foundation, it is likely that learning in later years will not be effective.
It has become widely accepted that civil society is essential to governance, peace and development in West Africa. The region has witnessed an exponential growth in diverse configurations of civil society groups working at different levels of society. While the activities and achievements of a significant number of these groups are visible and have gained recognition, in reality, most civil society contributions remain unknown and undocumented. Furthermore, the level of collaboration and networking within the civil society sector is limited given the challenges of communication and transportation in West Africa. As a result there is often duplication of initiatives.
Uganda is a land-locked country in the East African region. It covers a total area of 241,038 square kilometers. It borders Kenya in the east, Tanzania in the south, Rwanda in the southwest, Democratic Republic of Congo in the west and South Sudan in the north. It lies astride the equator, home to the source of the River Nile and greatly endowed with diverse fauna and flora, including gorillas, part of the equatorial forest, lakes and rivers.
Approximately five hundred participants attended the 4th Africa Conference on Sexual Health and Rights, held February 8–12, 2010, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The conference continued a longrunning process of fostering regional dialogue on sexual rights and health and generating specific actions to influence policies, specifically those of the African Union and its component institutions. The meeting built on earlier conferences held in Abuja, Nigeria (February 4–7, 2008); Nairobi, Kenya (June 19–21, 2006); and Johannesburg, South Africa (February 25–29, 2004).
This research effort has been made possible thanks to the efforts and the collaboration of many people—too many to mention individually. They generously dedicated their time and attention, provided much needed encouragement, and facilitated the difficult process of gathering knowledge and information.
In particular, we would like to acknowledge the time and attention of the various National AIDS Control organizations and other government agencies, civil society organizations, universities and research institutions, and UN and other international development partners, especially UNAIDS.
On June 16–18, 2009, TrustAfrica convened the grantees of its Religious Pluralism initiative to present the initial findings of their work and reflect on opportunities to extend its reach. The workshop, held at the Nairobi Safari Club in Nairobi, Kenya, brought together 25 participants, representing 12 grantee organizations, TrustAfrica, and other stakeholders interested in addressing the religious dimension of pluralism and identity in Africa. The meeting was designed to follow up on an earlier convening, held in July 2007 in Dakar, Senegal, and a related series of grants totaling $806,996 (see Appendix). The Nairobi convening gave many of these grantees an opportunity to share their project experiences and outcomes and to refine their networking strategies. It was also the first time TrustAfrica brought together grantees to look back at the implementation of funded projects and discuss potential follow‐up activities.
The workshop focused on two main items: the presentation of progress reports on projects supported by the research fund, and the possibility of setting up a network of Central African researchers to promote their professional interests and serve as a reliable partner in investment climate reform for investors, donors, and public‐sector decision makers. Fourteen participants from three countries made presentations on their work: ten from Cameroon, three from the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), and one from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.